Last week, the CDC extended the residential eviction moratorium to July 31. The constitutionality and validity of the moratorium has been litigated many times. The issues are: (1) the existence of constitutional power for the government to hand down such a moratorium under the Commerce Clause; and (2) whether the delegation of authority to the CDC by Congress is broad enough to encompass an eviction moratorium.
The latest decision was issued June 2 by the D.C. Circuit in Alabama Association ofRealtors v. United States Department of Health and Human Services*. There, the Court upheld the stay of the lower court’s decision striking down the moratorium and made it clear that the panel believes the CDC would win on the merits.
The Treasury Department issued new guidance encouraging states and local governments to streamline the distribution of the nearly $47 million in available emergency rental assistance funding. Associate Attorney General Vanita Gupta released a letter to state courts encouraging them to pursue alternatives to protect tenants and landlords.
South Carolina Housing authority is working with landlords and tenants to administer the federal pandemic relief funding. The application must come from the tenant, but the landlord may refer the tenant to the agency for action.
In other news, President Biden fired Mark Calabria, the head of the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) last week, just hours after the Supreme Court held the structure of FHFA was unconstitutional under the separation of powers doctrine. The offending provision states the president can only remove the director for cause, not at will. FHFA regulates Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, both of which have been the subject of extensive restructuring debate dating back to the housing crisis of 2008. The case is Collins v. Yellen**
Real estate practitioners will recall that the Court issued a similar decision last year concerning the structure of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) in Seila Law v. CFPB***.
* 2021 WL 2221646 (D.C. Circuit, June 2, 2021).
** U.S. Supreme Court case 19-422, WL2557067, June 23, 2021.
I hope no dirt lawyer was involved in this transaction!
Two sources, The Tampa Bay Times and The Hill, have reported on a faulty legal description resulting in the accidental sale by the town of Brooksville, Florida, of its water tower. Brooksville is a picturesque town west of Orlando and north of Tampa.
According to the reports, the purchaser, Bobby Head, sought to buy a small building with a garage at the water tower’s base for redevelopment as a gym. The building had previously been used as storage for the city. The inquiry about buying the property led to discussions among and action by city leaders declaring the building surplus and subdividing the land. The City approved the transaction at a meeting on April 19. The sales price was set at $55,000, and the closing took place on May 5.
On the day of the closing, the purchaser told city officials that he thought the legal description included more property, but the deed was signed and delivered anyway. (I think I would have taken a breath and checked out the legal description!)
Several days later, Head went to Hernando County Assessor’s office to get an address for his new business location. He was told then that the property he bought included the city’s entire water tower site.
Head agreed to sign a deed to return the water tower to the city, and that deed was recorded on May 14. Once council member said to The Tampa Bay Times that he was not happy that mistakes had been made and he also believed the city had lost needed parking.
One official joked on Facebook, “Last month we accidentally sold the water tower. What should we do today?” The newspaper reports that the redevelopment agency director resigned. The Mayor joked, according to the paper, “We just need to be darn sure this doesn’t happen again.” The papers report that the incident caused quite a community uproar, as we can all imagine.
Thankfully, the purchaser was an honorable person who returned the property within a few days. As we can all attest, not all mistakes in real estate transactions are corrected so easily. I’m sending good vibes from South Carolina and hoping no real estate lawyer was involved in preparing the legal description!
In the latest case*, South Carolina’s Supreme Court refers to the property as one of our state’s only three remaining pristine sandy beaches readily accessible to the general public. The other two are Hunting Island State Park and Huntington Beach State Park. I enjoy the blessing of walking the pristine beach of Huntington Beach State Park on a regular basis, so despite having a career on the periphery of real estate development, I am in favor of maintaining these three state treasures.
The South Carolina Bar’s Real Estate Intensive seminar in 2016 and 2018 included field trips to Captain Sam’s Spit, from a distance at least. Professor Josh Eagle of the University of South Carolina School of Law was an excellent tour guide, and how many opportunities do we, as dirt lawyers, have for field trips? The South Carolina Environmental Law Project, located in Pawleys Island, fights these cases. Amy Armstrong, an attorney with that entity, joined our group to explain the environmental and legal issues.
Here are greatly simplified facts. Captain Sam’s Spit encompasses approximately 170 acres of land above the mean high-water mark along the southwestern tip of Kiawah Island and is surrounded by water on three sides. The Spit is over a mile long and 1,600 feet at its widest point, but the focal point of the latest appeal is the land along the narrowest point (the “neck”), which is the isthmus of land connecting it to the remainder of Kiawah Island. The neck occurs at a deep bend in the Kiawah River where it changes direction before eventually emptying into the Atlantic Ocean via Captain Sam’s Inlet.
The neck has been migrating eastward because of the erosive forces of the Kiawah River. The “access corridor”—the buildable land between the critical area and the ocean-side setback line—has narrowed significantly in the past decade to less than thirty feet. Googling this issue will lead to active maps which show the change over time. The width of the neck is significant because the developer needs enough space to build a road. At the base of the neck is Beachwalker Park, operated by the Charleston County Parks and Recreation Commission. Our fieldtrips were conducted on that Park.
Twice before, the administrative law court (ALC), over the initial objection of DHEC, has granted permits for the construction of an extremely large erosion control device in the critical area. In both cases (citations omitted), the Supreme Court found the ALC erred. The current appeal stems from the ALC’s third approval of another structure termed “gargantuan” by the Supreme Court—a 2,380-foot steel sheet pile wall designed to combat the erosive forces carving into the sandy river shoreline in order to allow the developer to construct the road to support the development of fifty houses. The Court again reversed and, in effect, shut down the proposed development, at least temporarily. The economic interests of an increased tax base and employment opportunities do not justify eliminating the public’s use of protected tidelands, according to the Court.
The Charleston Post and Courier has reported that a lawyer for the developer will ask for a rehearing of the latest case. I wouldn’t be surprised to see the litigation continue for another decade, despite rising sea levels and increasing hurricane threats affecting the precarious property. Stay tuned for future news.
*South Carolina Coastal Conservative League v. South Carolina Department of Health andEnvironmental Control, South Carolina Supreme Court Opinion 28031 (June 2, 2021)
This post may be the first and last time this blog deals with a criminal case*, but the warning from South Carolina’s Supreme Court to Clerks of Court presents a worthy discussion for dirt lawyers.
The case involved a post conviction relief (PCR) application following a murder and attempted armed robbery conviction. The application was fraught with problems including a prison lockdown and incorrect forms. The Court said that the Clerk of Court’s ministerial duties required to Clerk to simply accept the application for filing, give it the appropriate docket number, and distribute it as required by law. Instead, the Clerk returned the application based on the statute of limitations. After chastising the Clerk, the Court granted the petition and instructed the petitioner to file his successive application within thirty days of the decision.
Omitting the citations and a significant footnote to be discussed later, here is the warning:
“We take this opportunity to remind the clerks of courts of their ministerial duty to docket filings irrespective of potential procedural flaws that may exist. It is not within the Clerk of Court’s authority to refuse to perform her duty based on her opinion that a filing lacks legal merit or is untimely. This duty is not discretionary. Unless specifically authorized by statute or a court rule, a clerk of court may not exercise any judicial power reserved for a judge. The clerk cannot, without express constitutional or statutory authority, exercise any judicial functions. This includes the prohibition of performing any action contingent on deciding a question of law. It follows that a clerk of court cannot ordinarily determine questions of law. Accordingly, a clerk of court does not have the authority to reject a filing based on ostensible or perceived failures, including whether the document is contained on the proper form. Because the clerk’s role is ministerial in this respect, the clerk shall not be concerned with the merit of the papers or with their effect and interpretation. Stated differently, a clerk of court may not reject a pleading for lack of conformity with requirements of form; only a judge may do that. In the absence of an order from a judge, clerks may not refuse to accept a notice of appeal, even if they believe that no appeal is untimely or otherwise defective. Instead, the clerk shall accept the filing, thereby permitting the court to decide any issues the parties may have with it.”
If you ever have an ROD office reject your deed, mortgage or other real estate documents, you may need to cite this case!
I had a situation early in my practice where properties had been accumulated across county lines for the development of a mall. To comply with seller and lender requirements, I had to record all the documents in a single day. Prior to cutting the recording checks, I had to apportion the documentary stamps between the two counties, which I did carefully and with much tax advice. The first county readily accepted all the documents. I was halfway home. The other county, however, rejected all the documents by jumping to a legal and tax decision about the sufficiency of the doc stamps for that county. I was in a proverbial pickle! I couldn’t un-record documents in the first county to take the time to sort out the situation. I had to convince the second county to accept the documents. Luckily, I had a good friend who was on the legal staff of the Department of Revenue. After several hours of running that friend down and explaining the situation to him in great detail, he agreed on my behalf to convince the second ROD to record the documents to allow the DOR to sort out the tax issue later. Whew! (And, by the way, my calculations turned out to be correct because I got great advice in advance.)
My position about this topic has always been that the ROD did not have the authority to decide a legal question about my documents! After this case, I believe the Supreme Court would agree.
Dirt lawyers love to tell stories about the treatment of documents in different counties. The stories go something like this…. County A will record a leaf that floats in from an open window, but County B will refuse to record a document on the flimsiest of legal technicalities.
I hope this case will help even the playing field.
One significant footnote in the case relates to real estate transactions. Referring to the rule that indicates a clerk cannot exercise judicial power unless authorized by statute, footnote 2 reads: “For example, in the context of real or personal property, section 30-9-30 authorizes a clerk of court to remove a sham document from the public records upon proper notice if the clerk reasonably believes the document to be fraudulent.”
This statute and this power could be important in cases of forged signatures and other fraud, but I still believe the ministerial official would at least need sound legal advice.
Pull this case out the next time one of your documents is rejected!
*Barnes v. The State of South Carolina, South Carolina Appellate Case No. 2020-001360 (June 3, 2021).
Real estate lawyers are the “Customers” of title insurance companies in South Carolina. In other parts of the country, title company customers are the consumers and businesses who buy and sell real estate and the lenders who loan funds to accommodate those transactions. But in South Carolina, title insurance companies sell their services to real estate lawyers.
I’ve been on both sides of title company – real estate lawyer equation, having been in private practice for about a decade and in the title insurance business almost three decades. Nothing is more important to the parties involved in real estate than protecting client funds. The scariest word to a title insurance company lawyer is “defalcation”, the misappropriation of funds by a person charged with protecting funds.
How does a title insurance company become responsible for funds in a real estate lawyer’s trust account? Title insurance companies issue Closing Protection Letters to lenders and others who seek the protection of a party with deep pockets for funds held in escrow by local lawyers. The lawyer is the title company’s agent, and the letter protects the lender if the agent fails to follow the lender’s written closing instructions or fails to protect escrow funds, and those failures result in title problems. If a lawyer vanishes with closing funds, the transaction cannot be properly completed, and the lender loses the benefit of the secured mortgage loan, typically after the lender has disbursed the funds to the closing attorney.
I was taught as a baby real estate lawyer that trust funds were sacrosanct. I was to never entertain the prospect that I could use those funds for personal purposes. I remember joking that I knew I was honest the first time I closed a $23 million transaction in the 1980’s. Later, as a baby title insurance company lawyer, I was taught that one of our main responsibilities was to help our attorney agents protect client funds. And, thankfully, almost every lawyer is absolutely committed to the process of protecting those funds.
But there are bad apples.
Harken back to 1995. Our office was contacted several times in the same week about missing closing packages, unrecorded mortgages and other mishaps revolving around closings handled by a single attorney. One call is probably an explainable and easily correctable mistake. Three or four calls indicate a genuine problem.
Calls to this attorney went unreturned. After a couple of days, it was “all hands-on deck” as our office learned that a Columbia lawyer had virtually vanished. We spent weeks in his office pouring over real estate and financial documents and months chasing down leads. Law enforcement and the Supreme Court’s Office of Disciplinary Counsel (ODC) got involved. The lawyer had disappeared, leaving an ex-wife and twin adolescent daughters in Columbia to pick up the pieces. Our office paid out almost $1 million to injured parties. In retrospect, that seems like a small sum based on later tales of woe.
This lawyer was missing for about three years. Then, he mistakenly used his real Social Security Number for a transaction in the accounting practice he had set up on the west coast and, Henry Richardson, the Disciplinary Counsel at the time, flew out west to retrieve him. He was eventually disbarred. We learned through that that he had not fled with $1 million in his pocket, as we had thought. The money had disappeared over the many years of his sloppy law practice. He fled with almost no money at all.
Why remember this case in 2021? Several news stories have been published recently about New York landlord lawyer, Mitch Kossoff, who has allegedly absconded with millions of dollars in escrow funds. (See, for example, “The curious case of the vanishing attorney” from TheRealDeal, May 12, 2021 and “Manhattan real estate lawyer Mitchell Kossoff facing N.Y. and U.S. criminal probes” from Reuters, May 26, 2021.)
I sincerely hope this lawyer turns up with the funds before innocent clients are hurt. In the meantime, clients have turned to the courts for help. One interesting case involves the lawyer’s mother, who alleges her son forged her signature to take out business loans. Counsel for the lawyer says he is not a fugitive, and that he will subject himself to the jurisdiction of the courts. This is definitely an interesting story that we’ll continue to follow.